These are introductory lectures to some aspects of the physics of strongly correlated electron systems. I first explain the main reasons for strong correlations in several classes of materials. The basic principles of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) are then briefly reviewed. I emphasize the formal analogies with classical mean-field theory and density functional theory, through the construction of free-energy functionals of a local observable. I review the application of DMFT to the Mott transition, and compare to recent spectroscopy and transport experiments. The key role of the quasiparticle coherence scale, and of transfers of spectral weight between low- and intermediate or high energies is emphasized. Above this scale, correlated metals enter an incoherent regime with unusual transport properties. The recent combinations of DMFT with electronic structure methods are also discussed, and illustrated by some applications to transition metal oxides and f-electron materials. |